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Pipe markers, Safety & IMO Signs, Low Location Lighting, Tags and Labels
Marine & Offshore
Marine & Offshore environments have very stringent and specific requirements.
Installations there operate in mostly hostile environments, constantly exposed to sea water and storms while processing flammable fluid and gases; are often isolated far away from land and infrastructure; and their personnel, often of multi-national origins, is exposed to such.
In addition, space is highly constrained, leading to confined areas and pipe networks optimized to the max to optimize space occupation. Whether it’s a jack-up rig, a F.P.S.O. or a F.L.N.G, these offshore and marine installations typically have kilometers of pipes and hundreds of valves carrying dozens of different fluids!
In these conditions, ensuring operations safety & emergency situations handling are critical, thus key safety pillars are key equipments & fluids identification and evacuation procedures, which are typically standardized by international organizations, as detailed below.
The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, SOLAS, is IMO main treaty, and is generally regarded as the most important of all international treaties concerning the safety of merchant ships.
Escape Routes Regulations
One of IMO/SOLAS key resolutions is Resolution A.116(30) which provide guidelines for escape route signs and equipment location markings.
Following paragraphs will introduce key aspects of some of these Marine & Offshore standards and regulations.
IMO Resolution A.116(30) & ISO 7010
Escape route Signs and Equipment Location Markings
A Safety Sign is defined as, according to this resolution: "Sign giving a general safety message, obtained by a combination of a colour and geometric shape and which, by the addition of a graphical symbol, gives a particular safety message."
Signs are classified based on on their function as follows, with sign shape and color guidelines:
IMO Resolution A.116 Signs Categories
Means of Escape Signs
Escape route identification.
Emergency Equipment Signs
Use and location of first aid facilities and portable safety equipment.
Life-saving Systems Signs
Use and location of life-saving systems and appliances.
Fire-fighting Equipment Signs
Use and location of fire-fighting systems and appliances.
Hazard Warning Safety Signs
Identify Hazards to avoid.
Mandatory Safety Signs
Mandatory Notices and Instructions.
Individual Sign Definition
A specific sign is defined by its code, description and graphic representation that is used in the sign itself.
Note: where needed, the graphical representation can be complemented by a text + colors expliciting a variant of it. In some projects these "extended signs instead (or in addition) of the text/color use a slightly, tolerated but non-standard, modified graphic representation.
Find below examples of these 3 types of representation.
IMO Resolution A.116 Sign Definition Examples
codebuilt using its category + an index
graphic symboldefined in details in ISO 7010 with a specific, different code
*If your project need other standard compliance, consult us directly.
Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems
Originally an American standard, later adopted in many countries either as-is or with minor variations as ANSI standard, ASME 13.1 defines in very practical ways how pipes should be marked: legend and marker sizes, suggested font, color coding, and guidelines on where to install such markers.
ASME 13.1, Color Coding principles
ASME 13.1 defines color coding based on pipe fluid classes, with 4 reserved for user defined, as follows:
ASME 13.1 Primary Colors
FIRE FIGHTING White Text On Red
Toxic & Corrosive
NITRIC ACID Black Text On Orange
ACETONE Black Text On Yellow
LUBRICATING OIL White Text On Brown
SEA WATER White Text On Green
COMPRESSED AIR White Text On Green
OTHER 1 White Text On Violet
OTHER 2 Black Text On White
OTHER 3 White Text On Grey
OTHER 4 White Text On Black
ASME 13.1, Pipe labeling Sizes
ASME 13.1 defines minimal marker width and label text letter height based on a set of pipe diameter ranges:
ASME 13.1 Pipe Marker Sizes
Pipe OD (NPS)Outside diameter, including insulation
Most countries have adopted GHS Rev 5 as part of their standard framework for labelling of storage and transport of chemical and hazardous substances, with a new Rev. 6 published in 2015. See dedicated GHS Standard section below for more details.
GHS labels and pipe markers design specifications are based on a combination of pictograms, colours, signal words and rules on how to apply and combine these. With the advent of mixtures and requirements to support these, each situation and its related set of markers has become very specific and close to unique.
Idigo Products Compliance with GHS
IDIGO label generator software allow us to quickly generate your GHS specific labels. Combined with IDIGO On-Demand manufacturing, we can deliver in record time hundreds of different GHS compliant pipe markers and labels to fulfill your requirements.
GHS Rev 5 Specifications
Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals
The "GHS standard" refers to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, often abbreviated as GHS. It is a standardized system for classifying and labeling chemicals to ensure the safe handling, transportation, and use of hazardous substances globally.
Key aspects of the GHS standard include:
Classification: GHS provides criteria for classifying chemicals into different hazard categories based on their physical, health, and environmental properties. It defines hazard classes such as flammable liquids, carcinogens, and corrosive substances.
Labeling: GHS standardizes the labeling of chemical containers with specific pictograms, signal words (e.g., "Danger" or "Warning"), hazard statements, and precautionary statements. These labels provide essential information about the hazards associated with the chemical product.
Safety Data Sheets (SDS): GHS requires the creation of Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for each hazardous chemical. SDSs contain detailed information about the chemical's properties, hazards, safe handling procedures, and emergency response measures.
Information Transfer: GHS aims to ensure that relevant information about chemical hazards is communicated consistently throughout the supply chain, from manufacturers and distributors to end-users.
Hazard Communication: GHS promotes clear and effective communication of chemical hazards to workers, emergency responders, and the general public, helping them make informed decisions about safe handling and use of chemicals.
International Adoption: The GHS has been adopted by many countries and regions worldwide, leading to a more consistent and standardized approach to chemical classification and labeling. However, the specific implementation and regulatory requirements may vary from one jurisdiction to another
GHS Rev 5 is the basis of Singapore SS586, part 1-3: 2008. The implementation of this standard is now completed, with the mandatory marking of all hazardous substances, including mixtures effective as of July 1st 2016.
GHS Hazards Pictograms
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) uses standardized icons or pictograms to convey information about the hazards associated with chemicals. These pictograms are an essential part of GHS labeling and are used to provide quick visual cues to users about the potential risks of handling a particular chemical.
When handling chemicals, individuals should in addition refer to the labels and safety data sheets (SDS) to understand the specific hazards associated with a particular substance and take appropriate precautions to ensure safety.
Each pictogram represents a specific hazard category, as detailed below:
GHS Hazard Pictograms
This pictogram represents explosives and materials that can explode if exposed to heat, shock, friction, or other factors.
It is often associated with fireworks and other explosive materials, and includes:
Explosives divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6
Self-reactive substances and mixtures types A, B
Organic peroxides types A, B
This pictogram signifies flammable materials, including liquids, gases, and solids that can ignite easily when exposed to heat, flames, or sparks, generally most solvents.
It also covers materials that emit flammable gases upon contact with water, and includes:
Flammable gases category 1
Flammable aerosols categories 1, 2
Flammable liquids categories 1, 2, 3, 4
Flammable solids categories 1, 2
Pyrophoric liquids and solids category 1
Combustible solids and liquids category 3
Self-heating substances and mixtures categories 1, 2
Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases categories 1, 2, 3
Self-reactive substances, mixtures and organic peroxides types B, C, D, E, F
This pictogram represents oxidizing substances and materials that can increase the intensity of a fire or combustion when in contact with other flammable substances.
Oxidizing gases category 1
Oxidizing liquids and solids categories 1, 2, 3
GHS04 Compressed Gas
This pictogram indicates gases stored under pressure. It is commonly seen on containers holding compressed gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, or propane.
Refrigerated liquefied gases
This pictogram represents corrosive substances that can cause severe damage to skin, eyes, or metal surfaces upon contact.
It is often associated with strong acids and bases.
This classic skull and crossbones pictogram indicate acute toxicity, particularly substances that can be lethal or cause severe health effects even in small quantities.
It includes chemicals that cause harm to human health through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact categories 1, 2, 3, both acute and chronic toxicity.
This pictogram indicates materials that may cause skin or eye irritation or have other harmful effects on health.
It covers skin sensitizers and non-severe irritants, and includes:
Specific target organ toxicity category 3 following single exposure:
Respiratory tract irritation
GHS08 Health hazard
This category includes various other healthhazards not covered by the specific pictograms above. It covers substances that are carcinogenic, mutagenic, or reproductive toxicants (CMRs) or substances that pose a physical hazard not covered by the other categories.
GHS not only cover labelling of storage tanks, bottles etc, but also transport of these via pipes etc.
More specifically for piping labeling, rule 18.104.22.168.5.1 “Workplace labelling” explicitly states that GHS labels should be applied to “piping systems including valves” and that such installations should ensure clear hazard communication through the “use of displays with GHS symbols, colour and signal words in piping systems and processing equipments”.